Napoleonic Wars – History has witnessed many important events between the Napoleonic Wars and World War II. Events such as the Industrial Revolution, the rise of Germany, the formation of leftist ideas, and world wars are among the most important events of this period. He examined the impact of this revolution on the subsequent developments of continental Europe and even the whole world. The French Revolution is the first modern revolution in the history of the world because it was not a short-lived revolt and followed the change of order in France.
Prior to this revolution, the status quo structures, such as the political and social structure, had never been challenged and, of course, no new option had been offered. But the French Revolution, in addition to revolting against the existing structure, also introduced a new structure. In a way, they were either directly influenced by or inspired by the French Revolution. But other important events took place during this period, from 1800 to 1945, some of which were no less important than the French Revolution. Events such as the Industrial Revolution, the rise of Germany and Italy, the formation of the idea of Marxism, and world wars will be examined in this article.
Napoleon and the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleon is one of the historical figures who have gained transnational fame. Napoleon should be considered one of the military heroes of France because he was always at war and opening up the country and had little time to deal with other matters. “Saddle is his horse!” Napoleon was the most powerful man in Europe from 1802, when he was elected emperor of France, until his ouster in 1815. He was also considered the most successful military commander in Europe. Napoleon can be considered the son of the French Revolution. Napoleon became a general in 1793 at the age of 24. Two years later, he made a name for himself by suppressing the royalist revolt in Paris. A year later, he took command of French forces in Italy; Where he managed to achieve continuous victories in the war against the Austrians and defeat the Austrian vanguards one after another. He entered France as a hero, and his popularity continued to rise even after the coup d’état of 1799. Tendency to go to war with warring states, authoritarian states such as Austria and Prussia, and spread revolutionary ideas to other countries before coming to power in France. There was Napoleon. Napoleon succeeded in leading and riding this wave. At its peak between 1810 and 1812, Napoleon’s empire controlled Spain, Italy, the Netherlands, Belgium, Switzerland, Poland, Croatia, Slovenia, and most of Germany. Although Napoleon was not present during the events of the Revolution of 1789, he consolidated many of the revolutionary changes from 1789 to 1791.
Map of the French Empire during the Napoleonic era
Napoleon’s importance was not only due to his military conquests. In many conquered areas, Napoleon established republics based on the constitution, the Charter of Human Rights, the equality of individuals, and the House of Representatives. He also carried out economic, judicial, and administrative reforms in accordance with the French model in these republics. The seed that Napoleon planted in these countries did not disappear after him and continued to grow.
Revolutions after Napoleon
In 1815, after Napoleon’s final defeat at Waterloo, the four great European powers that be, Austria, Russia, Prussia, and Britain, gathered in Vienna to take measures to prevent the consequences of the French Revolution and possible future revolts. They agreed to suppress it in the future wherever there was a revolt or revolution against the existing order in Europe. In a way, even the soldiers of a government like Austria, which had given its chancellor the title of European policeman to Metternich, could enter the country to suppress an uprising in the neighboring government. The revolutions of this year (1848, likened to the spring of Europe) were suppressed, but the French Revolution had done its job, and the awakened nations were no longer willing to go back.
The Second French Republic
During these uprisings, Belgium gained independence from the Netherlands in the 1820s, Greece was able to secede from the Ottomans with the help of Britain and France, many monarchies fell, and many countries, such as Germany, Italy, and Hungary, were influenced by nationalist ideas. They formed a unit.
The Industrial Revolution refers to a period in which economic production through manual tools gave way to the power of the machine, which initially took its fuel from coal and water vapor. Most of this process took place in Europe between 1750 and 1850. Of course, the changes that took place in Great Britain after 1780 were greater. The Industrial Revolution and the French Revolution occurred almost simultaneously, and both spread very quickly. This revolution first and foremost affected Britain and the economy, then France and continental Europe (the mainland that made up continental Europe). Created the modern social revolution. It also had long-term consequences for society and politics. The advent of integrated factories, urbanization, the transformation of families, and the rise of a new form of social life, the urban labor system or proletariat, were all consequences of the Industrial Revolution. , Compared 2000 years ago. Because like the agricultural revolution, after the industrial revolution, human history entered a new era.
Machine factories during the Industrial Revolution
But why did the Industrial Revolution first occur in Britain? In response, it should be said that the people of this island were very mobile and educated, and apart from this, they should have other characteristics such as ready coal resources, a wide network of rivers suitable for trade, canals, and coastal roads, short internal distances between cities, experience the agricultural revolution and He noted the fencing movement, population growth, and political stability. In addition to these internal factors, the free resources and labor of the colonies provided the necessary facilities for this great material and economic leap in Britain. But the Industrial Revolution, in addition to the positive results it had on economic growth and commodity production, had another side, and that was the hardships that the British people endured during industrialization.
English houses during the Industrial Revolution
It can be said that a large number of English people, who lost their lands and moved from the countryside to the cities as a result of the fencing movement, were subjected to the greatest pressure in the factories in the 18th and 19th centuries for the Industrial Revolution to take place. , An eyewitness described the situation of British workers and factories in this period as follows:
“The new urban masses were integrated cities. These cities were blackened by heavy soot produced by factories during the Coal Age. Urban settlements that were long distances from each other were only black at worst. Workers’ houses were carelessly built, as well as small and very cramped. “The city was full of rental blocks where thousands of children who had lost their childhood as a result of their play were playing.”