The Second French Empire
The Second French Empire – Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, the nephew of Napoleon I, was emperor of France from 1852 to 1870. His fall occurred during the Franco-Prussian War. Napoleon III was born in 1808 in Paris. He was the nephew of Napoleon I and grew up in exile. However, he tried to seize the throne of France. He began his career in 1832 by writing various political and military articles to introduce himself and his ideas to others. After an unsuccessful attempt in 1836, he was again sent into exile. After the Revolution of 1848, two years later, Napoleon III was elected President of the Second Republic and remained in office until 1852. He then ruled in the position of the empire he had formed until 1870. After his capture by enemy forces in the Franco-Prussian War, he was sent to England, where he died three years later.
Early years – The Second French Empire
Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte was born on April 20, 1808, in Paris, France. He was the third son of Napoleon I, Louis Bonaparte. His father ruled as King of the Netherlands from 1806 to 1810. Louis Napoleon’s parents had given the Dutch government to France, but after the defeat of Napoleon I in 1815, all members of the Bonaparte family were exiled. Louis Napoleon grew up in Switzerland and his mother always dreamed of France and always admired Napoleon I’s genius. He grows up. When he was still a young man, he went to Italy, where he became interested in the history and ideas of national liberation. It was from there that the thought of rebuilding the Napoleonic Empire burned in his mind. He and his older brother joined liberal politicians and a revolutionary group fighting against the papal system and Austrian control of northern Italy. His brother, who was suffering from measles, died while fleeing in the arms of Louis Napoleon, and he himself was able to survive the enemy’s attack only with the intervention of his mother.
After the death of his cousin, Napoleon I’s only son, in 1832, Louis Napoleon considered himself the next successor to the throne under a succession law enacted by Napoleon I, and underwent military training and the study of economics and social problems. He backed down for this. In 1832, he published his first political and military writings, claiming that only an emperor could grant France the glory and freedom it deserved. This was the beginning of his efforts to make his name known, during which he spread his ideas among the people in order to gain followers. Louis Napoleon returned to France in October 1836 to imitate Napoleon I during his “Hundred Days”. . In the process, he staged a coup in Strasbourg and called in local troops to rebuild Napoleon’s empire, but they arrested instead of joining him. King Louis-Philippe exiled him to the United States but was called to Switzerland in 1837 due to his mother’s illness. He was deported to Switzerland the following year. In 1839, Louis Napoleon published a pamphlet entitled “Napoleonic Ideas” in which he tried to turn Bonapartism into a political ideology.
With this idea in mind, Louis Napoleon returned to France in August 1840 and staged another coup. The Boulogne-Sur-Mer military again refused to join him and he was arrested. Although this time Louis Napoleon was not exiled, he went to court and was sentenced to life in prison. During this time he again devoted himself to studying to prepare for the role of empire. He also kept in touch with members of the French opposition and published articles in opposition newspapers and wrote numerous pamphlets. In May 1846, Louis Napoleon finally escaped and fled to England, where he waited for another chance to seize power. Only two months later, in July 1846, his father died and Louis Napoleon officially inherited Bonaparte’s estate in France.
Revolution of 1848
Louis Napoleon lived in England until the beginning of the Revolution and returned in February 1848, when a new republic was established. Of course, the Provisional Government sent him back to England directly, because he was considered a distraction when the new government was formed. However, some supporters of Louis Napoleon formed a small party and nominated him as their candidate for the Constituent Assembly. Louis Napoleon succeeded and returned to France in mid-1848. From that moment on, he immediately began plotting for the presidency. Because of Bonaparte’s obvious weight to France, Louis Napoleon was able to turn many votes in his favor by reviving memories of national glory and promises of a return to those days. He also rose to prominence by popularizing himself among all factions with the promise of developing the interests of all of them. Getting ready, Louis Napoleon had a surprise victory with 75% of the vote.
Under the new constitution of 1848, Louis Napoleon’s presidency ended in May 1852. The new law also barred the president from running again; Thus, in the third year of his presidency, Louis Napoleon, on the pretext that one term was not enough to carry out his political and economic plans, called for an amendment to the law so that he could run in the next term. Lead to abuse of power, feared, and rejected constitutional amendments. Louis Napoleon then began provincial trips around the country to gain popularity among the people for himself, his policies, and the idea that his presidency should be extended. Despite his widespread popularity, Parliament did not change its mind, and finally, on December 2, 1851, Louis Napoleon came to power through a referendum based on his widespread popularity. He repealed it and wrote a new constitution, which was soon approved by a referendum. He held another referendum in November 1852 and ascended the throne as emperor and was named Napoleon III; Thus the Second Republic came to an end and the Second French Empire began.
Napoleon III: Domestic politics
Although one of Napoleon III’s strategies was to always be one step ahead of the general public, and he suffered a great deal to be studied and influenced by propaganda, he also devised plans to reach out to almost all sections of society. Be popular. Napoleon III vowed to “take the initiative and do whatever is beneficial to France’s wealth and greatness.” This goal was certainly vague, but he did public works such as the construction of railways, the advancement, and the development of industry and agriculture. He was also personally interested in the modern reconstruction of Paris and was a great supporter of French inventors. Other important tasks included the lower price of bread and the construction of a health center for workers and the establishment of governing boards.